This research program will investigate how the spatial organisation of the insulin receptor regulates its function and aims to contribute to the development of new strategies for the treatment of diabetes. Diabetes has very high and increasing prevalence worldwide. Insulin replacement therapy helps patients to keep their glucose levels within an acceptable range but it is still challenging to mimic the dynamics of endogenous insulin release, while avoiding dangerous hypoglycaemia. Therefore, there is a need to find new ways to implement insulin replacement therapy. The approach presented in this proposal uses beyond state-of-the-art nanotechnology methods to explore a new angle in diabetes treatment. Instead of focusing only on blood insulin concentrations as the treatment variable, we propose that the nanoscale organization of insulin drugs can be used as a design parameter to improve insulin replacement therapy.